“July is a blind date with summer.” Hal Borland, Sundial of the Seasons
JULY 1, Jean Lurçat
The key contributor to the revival of modern and contemporary tapestry, French artist – Jean Lurçat – was born #OnThisDay (July 1) in 1892.
In order to fully appreciate and understand Jean Lurçat’s work and input, one must view them in the context of the history of tapestry, in particular the downfall of its existence during the rise of the Renaissance. Jean Lurçat was the artisan behind the comeback and betterment of tapestry in the 20th century, when he redefined the importance of designing tapestry in a way that embraced the integrity of authentic tapestry from the Middle Ages, subsequently inspiring artists like Picasso to acquire the skills of tapestry design.
JULY 2, Pierre-Georges Jeanniot
Swiss-French Impressionist painter, book illustrator, watercolorist, and engraver – Pierre-Georges Jeanniot – was born #OnThisDay (July 2) in 1848 in Geneva, Switzerland.
Jeanniot was gifted with many talents and excelled at drawing, showing much passion and artistic strength in his works. His best-known visual stories depict the modern life in Paris and his images are vivacious, expressive and enthusiastic while, at the same time, rendering with a sense of humor the picturesque scenes of daily life.
Pierre-Georges Jeanniot furthermore illustrated a large number of literary books, among them Le Voyage à Saint-Cloud, Germinie Lacerteux, Contes choisis (Guy de Maupassant), Tartarin de Tarascon (Alphonse Daudet), Les liaisons dangereuses (Pierre Choderlos de Laclos). He was also one of the illustrators of Les Misérables (Victor Hugo, 1887), La Débâcle et La Curée (Émile Zola, 1893–1894), Le Calvaire (Octave Mirbeau, 1901), Le Misanthrope (Molière, 1907), Les Paysans (Honoré de Balzac, 1911), Candide (Voltaire), and many more.
JULY 3, John Singleton Copley
Anglo-Irish American painter – John Singleton Copley – was born #OnThisDay (July 3) in 1738 in Boston, Massachusetts.
After becoming well-established as a portrait painter of the wealthy in colonial New England, Copley moved to London in 1774, never returning to America.
For the next two decades, Copley met considerable success as a portraitist in London and also painted a number of large history paintings, which were innovative in their readiness to depict modern subjects and modern dress.
Copley’s later years were less successful and he died heavily in debt in 1815 in London, at the age of 77.
JULY 4, Carolus-Duran
French painter and art educator – Carolus-Duran – was born #OnThisDay (July 4) in 1837 as Charles Auguste Émile Durand.
Noted for his stylish depictions of members of high society in Third Republic France, Carolus-Duran deserves a special mention for his activity as an art instructor, having trained, developed, and influenced at least twenty-five notable painters, who used to be his students (e.g., John Singer Sargent, Jan Stanisławski, Kenyon Cox, Mariquita Jenny Moberly, Maximilien Luce, Paul César Helleu, Lucy Lee-Robbins, Ramon Casas i Carbó, among several others).
In 1890, Carolus-Duran was one of the co-founders of the second Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and he was elected a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1904. The following year, he was appointed Director of the French Academy in Rome, a position he held until 1913.
Featured: Portrait paintings by Carolus-Duran (4 July 1837 – 17 February 1917) surrounding the central piece portrait of the artist himself, as painted by his former student, the American expatriate artist John Singer Sargent, in 1879.
JULY 5, André Lhote
French Cubist painter and art educator – André Lhote – was born #OnThisDay (July 5) in 1885.
Trained early in wood carving and decorative sculpture, Lhote initially favored painting in the style of les Fauves, then shifted to cubism, joining the avant-garde movement next to Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Metzinger, Francis Picabia, and Roger de La Fresnaye, among other artists.
Lhote taught at the Académie Notre-Dame des Champs from 1918 to 1920, and later taught at other Paris art schools – including the Académie de la Grande Chaumière and his own school, Academy André Lhote, which he founded in Montparnasse in 1922. He lectured extensively in other countries too – Belgium, England, Italy and, from the 1950s, in Egypt and Brazil.
“To use color well is as difficult as for a fish to pass from water to air or earth.” André Lhote (5 July 1885 – 24 January 1962)
JULY 6, Frida Kahlo
“I paint myself because I am so often alone and because I am the subject I know best.”
– Frida Kahlo, one of the world’s most original and popular artists, born #OnThisDay (July 6) in 1907
Much has already been said and written about the Mexican painter and unique human being – Frida Kahlo. She attracted fashionable interest to the extent that the term #Fridamania has been coined to describe the phenomenon. Frida Kahlo is “one of the most instantly recognizable artists”, whose face has been “used with the same regularity, and often with a shared symbolism, as the images of Che Guevara or Bob Marley”. Frida Kahlo’s popular appeal is seen to stem first from a fascination with her life story, especially its painful and tragic aspects, and the tumultuous relationship with painter Diego Rivera. She has become an icon for several minority groups and political movements, such as feminists, the LGBTQ community, and Chicanos (El Movimiento).
Sadly however, “the twenty-first-century Frida is both a star – a commercial property, complete with fan clubs and merchandising – and an embodiment of the hopes and aspirations of a near-religious group of followers. This wild, hybrid Frida, a mixture of tragic bohemian, Virgin of Guadalupe, revolutionary heroine and Salma Hayek, has taken such great hold on the public imagination that it tends to obscure the historically retrievable Kahlo.” [Oriana Baddeley, Art Historian]
An invitation to retrieve the genuine Frida Kahlo by solely contemplating her self-portraits.
JULY 7, Marc Chagall
“Despite all the troubles of our world, in my heart I have never given up on the love in which I was brought up or on man’s hope in love. In life, just as on the artist’s palette, there is but one single color that gives meaning to life and art – the color of love.”
– Marc Chagall, Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin, born #OnThisDay (July 7) in 1887
JULY 8, Käthe Kollwitz
German expressionist graphic artist – Käthe Kollwitz – was born #OnThisDay (July 8) in 1867.
Painter, printmaker, and sculptor, Käthe Kollwitz became the first woman who was not only elected to the Prussian Academy of Arts, but also received the honorary professor status.
Käthe Kollwitz’s pieces are often devastatingly painful, predominantly depicting the effects of poverty, hunger and war on the working class.
JULY 9, Stephen Parrish
American etcher, illustrator and painter – Stephen Parrish – was born #OnThisDay (July 9) in 1846.
A member of the New York Etching Club and the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers of London, Parrish exhibited in New York City, Boston, Philadelphia, London, Liverpool, Paris, Munich, Dresden, and Vienna.
His son, Maxfield Parrish (1870–1966), also became a successful painter and illustrator, enjoying much popularity in the first half of the 20th century.
JULY 10, Giorgio de Chirico
Italian artist, founder of the “scuola metafisica” art movement as of 1910 (metaphysical painting or metaphysical art, a significant influence for the later surrealism) – Giorgio de Chirico – was born #OnThisDay (July 10) in 1888 in Volos, Greece.
De Chirico’s easily recognizable artworks often feature Roman arcades, long shadows, mannequins, trains, and illogical perspectives. His imagery reflects his affinity for the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and of Friedrich Nietzsche, and for the mythology of his birthplace – Greece.
After 1919, Giorgio de Chirico became a critic of modern art, studied traditional painting techniques, and worked in a neoclassical or neo-Baroque style, while frequently revisiting the metaphysical themes of his earlier work.
“To become truly immortal a work of art must escape all human limits: logic and common sense will only interfere. But once these barriers are broken it will enter the regions of childhood vision and dream.” Giorgio de Chirico (10 July 1888 – 20 November 1978)
JULY 11, James Abbott McNeill Whistler
American Gilded Ageℹ️ painter – James Abbott McNeill Whistler – was born #OnThisDay (July 11) in 1834.
Primarily based in the UK, Whistler eschewed sentimentality and moral allusion in painting and was a leading proponent of the credo “art for art’s sake”.ℹ️
Whistler found a parallel between painting and music, and entitled many of his paintings “arrangements”, “harmonies”, and “nocturnes”, emphasizing the primacy of tonal harmony (Whistler was also the founder of the artistic style known as ‘Tonalism’ℹ️). Easily recognizable, Whistler’s signature on his paintings took the shape of a stylized butterfly with a long stinger for a tail (a symbol likely cobining both aspects of Whistler’s personality – his art marked by a subtle delicacy opposed to his combative public persona).
Whistler was inspired by and incorporated many sources in his art, including the work of Rembrandt, Velázquez, and ancient Greek sculpture to develop his own highly influential and individual style. He was adept in many media, with over 500 paintings, as well as etchings, pastels, watercolors, drawings, and lithographs. He achieved worldwide recognition during his lifetime and also influenced two generations of artists, in Europe and in the United States.
ℹ️In United States history, the Gilded Age was an era extending roughly from 1870 to 1900, a time of rapid economic growth. The term came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner’s 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today.
ℹ️Art for art’s sake (aestheticism) – the usual English rendering of “l’art pour l’art”, a French slogan from the early 19th century – is a phrase that expresses the philosophy that the intrinsic value of art, and the only ‘true’ art, is divorced from any didactic, moral, political, or utilitarian function.
ℹ️Tonalism was an artistic style that emerged in the 1880s when American artists began to paint landscape forms with an overall tone of colored atmosphere or mist. Between 1880 and 1915, dark, neutral hues such as gray, brown or blue, often dominated compositions by artists associated with the style. The leading tonalist painters were Whistler and George Inness.
JULY 12, Amedeo Modigliani
Italian painter and sculptor – Amedeo Modigliani – was born #OnThisDay (July 12) in 1884.
Modigliani worked mainly in France (where he first moved to in 1906), ‘a prince of vagabonds’, a highly popular figure in the artistic communities of Montmartre and Montparnasse.
For decades, critical evaluations of Modigliani’s work were overshadowed by the dramatic story of his tragic life and premature death aged 35, followed by the immediate suicide of his inconsolable fiancée, Jeanne Hébuterne, together with their unborn child.
Nowadays, Modigliani is widely acknowledged as one of the most significant and original artists of his time, whose easily recognizable portraits and nudes are characterized by asymmetrical compositions, elongated figures, and a simple but monumental use of line. Modigliani was a proficient sculptor as well (for one year he was a disciple of the titanic sculptor Constantin Brâncuși), but eventually he abandoned sculpting to focus solely on painting.
Featured: Amedeo Modigliani’s 1915-1918 series of portraits of contemporary artists, writers, poets, art dealers, and friends in Montparnasse (Blaise Cendrars, Jean Cocteau, Chaïm Soutine, Léopold Zborowski, Max Jacob, Juan Gris, Léon Indenbaum, Moïse Kisling, and Pablo Picasso, among several others)
JULY 13, Mordecai Ardon
Awarded Israeli painter and art educator – Mordecai Ardon – was born #OnThisDay (July 13) in 1896 in Tuchów, Galicia (then Austria-Hungary, now Poland) as Max Bronstein.
In 1933 he immigrated to Mandate Palestine, settling in Jerusalem. He was granted British Mandatory Palestinian citizenship in 1936 and changed his name to Mordecai Ardon (Hebrew: מרדכי ארדון).
Beginning with the 1950s, Mordecai Ardon adopted a complex system of symbolic images in his paintings, taken from the Jewish mystical tradition (Kabbalah), from the Bible and from the tangible reality. His work appeared as seeking to impart a cosmic dimension to the present, linking it to antiquity and mystery.
Ardon believed in pure art devoid of any political or social message. He believed that a painting should be appreciated and judged solely by its inherent artistic elements, color, composition and their interplay. He rejected literary, symbolic or, indeed, any other additional meaning attributed to a work of art. Yet, although he tried, he could not always overcome his urge to create an artistic expression of his horror of war and injustice.
As a teacher and director of the “New Bezalel”, Ardon conveyed his sense of social involvement, his tendency towards Jewish mysticism and local mythology, and the combination of personal national symbols with reality, always employing a masterful technique. Pupils such as Avigdor Arikha, Yehuda Bacon, Naftali Bezem, Shraga Weil and Shmuel Boneh absorbed these influences and integrated them into their later work.
Mordecai Ardon (13 July 1896 – 18 June 1992) is considered by many to have been Israel’s greatest painter.
JULY 14, Gustav Klimt
Homage to cherished Austrian painter – Gustav Klimt – born 160 years ago #OnThisDay (July 14) in 1862.
The Art-Based Learning Calendar’s Klimt tribute post presents once again (see post 2021) the artist’s lost/destroyed/hidden paintings (mainly the August Lederer collection), whose tragic and uncertain fate was primarily attributed to the fire presumably set by the retreating German army at Schloss Immendorf in Lower Austria on the last day of World War II, on 8 May 1945.
August Lederer (1857-1936) was an Austrian industrialist and art collector who promoted the artists of the Vienna Secession, notably Gustav Klimt. The Lederer’s art collection was the largest and most important private collection of Gustav Klimt and one of the first to be seized by the Nazis in Austria. Confiscated in 1938, the Lederer collection was stored mainly at Immendorf Castle, where it would have largely burned in May 1945 under yet poorly clarified circumstances.
Featured: Gustav Klimt’s (14 July 1862 – 6 February 1918) paintings classified as ‘Destroyed by Fire’ in 1945
JULY 15, Rembrandt
Rembrandt, the painter of light and shade, one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art, whose works emanate the artist’s empathy for the human condition – a genuine “prophet of civilization” on that account – was born #OnThisDay (July 15) in 1606 in Leiden, Netherlands, as Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn.
“Life etches itself onto our faces as we grow older, showing our violence, excesses or kindnesses.” Rembrandt Van Rijn
Rembrandt (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) possessed an exceptional ability to render people in their various moods and dramatic guises, capturing human emotions and feelings in an outstandingly realistic manner.
JULY 16, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
French painter and printmaker – Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – was born #OnThisDay (July 16) in 1796.
Corot was a pivotal figure in landscape painting and his vast output anticipated the plein-air innovations of the later impressionists. Of him Claude Monet exclaimed in 1897: “There is only one master here – Corot. We are nothing compared to him, nothing.” At the same time, Corot was a realist portrait and figure painter, widely appreciated by generations of subsequent painters of the human figure.
Around 1860, Corot (16 July 1796 – 22 February 1875) summed up his approach to art: “I interpret with my art as much as with my eye.”
JULY 17, Lyonel Feininger
German-American multidisciplinary artist and leading proponent of Expressionism – Lyonel Feininger – was born #OnThisDay (July 17) in 1871 in New York City, as the son of German-American violinist and composer Karl Feininger and American singer Elizabeth Feininger.
Lyonel Feininger studied art in Germany and was associated with the local avant-garde art movements and German expressionist groups (Blaue Reiter, Die Brücke, Berlin Secession, Novembergruppe). Later, when Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus in Germany in 1919, Feininger was his first faculty appointment, and became the master artist in charge of the printmaking workshop.
In 1894 Feininger started a career as cartoonist and met with much success in this area. He was also a commercial caricaturist for twenty years for magazines and newspapers in the USA and Germany. At the age of 36, Lyonel Feininger started to work as a fine artist. He moreover produced a large body of photographic works between 1928 and the mid-1950s, but he kept these primarily within his circle of friends. Furthermore, Lyonel Feininger (17 July 1871 – 13 January 1956) was a pianist and composer, with several piano compositions and fugues for organ extant.
JULY 18, Giacomo Balla
Italian painter, sculptor, art educator, and poet – Giacomo Balla – was born #OnThisDay (July 18) in 1871.
An important proponent of Futurism, Balla depicted light, space, movement and speed in his paintings, yet, unlike other leading futurists, Balla was not interested in machines or violence. He was concerned with expressing motion in his works, but tending rather towards the witty and whimsical.
Giacomo Balla (18 July 1871 – 1 March 1958) signed the Manifesto of Futurismℹ️ in 1910. In 1914, he began to also design Futurist furniture, as well as so-called Futurist “antineutral” clothing. During World War I, Balla’s studio became a preferred meeting place for young artists.
ℹ️The Manifesto of Futurism (Italian: Manifesto del Futurismo) was written by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and published in 1909. Marinetti expressed the artistic philosophy called Futurism as a rejection of the past and a celebration of speed, machinery, violence, youth and industry, also advocating the modernization and cultural rejuvenation of Italy.
JULY 19, Edgar Degas
French Impressionist artist – Edgar Degas – was born #OnThisDay (July 19) in 1834.
Unlike other Impressionists, Degas was not preoccupied with light and nature. Instead, he was fascinated by movement and people – making ballerinas his ideal subject.
“People call me the painter of dancing girls. It has never occurred to them that my chief interest in dancers lies in rendering movement and painting pretty clothes.”
With a sketchbook in hand, Degas regularly visited the Palais Garnier, Paris’ premier opera house, to observe ballet classes and watch rehearsals. He also invited ballet dancers to pose in his studio, allowing him to document their pirouettes and pliés with unprecedented precision.
Throughout his career, Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) produced approximately 1,500 depictions of dancers, culminating in a collection of paintings, pastels, and sculptures that comprise over half of his entire oeuvre.
JULY 20, Max Liebermann
German painter and printmaker of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry – Max Liebermann – was born #OnThisDay (July 20) in 1847.
Liebermann was a leading proponent of Impressionism in Germany and continental Europe. In addition to his activity as an artist, he was a passionate art collector and assembled the most important collection of French Impressionist artworks in Germany (later looted by the Nazis – 1943-44).
JULY 21, Mildred Bryant Brooks
American printmaker, muralist, and art educator – Mildred Bryant Brooks – was born #OnThisDay (July 21) in 1901.
During her studies at the Otis and Chouinard Art Institutes, Brooks was encouraged by her teacher and mentor – Frank Tolles Chamberlin (1873-1961), American painter, muralist, and sculptor – to try her hand at etching. She pursued with much talent the art of etching and was further supported by another great American printmaker – the passionate etcher Earl Stetson Crawford (1877-1965), who considered etching “the purest form of printmaking”.
Brooks’ own teaching career began in 1929 at the Stickney Art Institute in Pasadena where she installed her etching press and printed for artists. She became a member of the California Society of Etchers, California Society of Printmakers, Chicago Society of Etchers, Society of American Etchers and the Pasadena Society of Artists. Her etchings were included in numerous national exhibitions and garnered twenty-two awards.
Mildred Bryant Brooks (21 July 1901 – 3 July 1995) gave up printmaking during World War II and turned her attention to mural painting.
JULY 22, Edward Hopper
American realist painter and printmaker – Edward Hopper – was born #OnThisDay (July 22) in 1882. While he is widely known for his oil paintings, Hopper was equally proficient as a watercolorist and printmaker in etching.
A quiet introvert, always reluctant to discuss himself and his art, Hopper simply said, “The whole answer is there on the canvas.”
Edward Hopper (22 July 1882 – 15 May 1967) painted some of the most haunting moments of human isolation in Western art but, at the same time, he captured a wider variety of American lights than any other painter of his generation, from the morning sun on Cape Cod houses to the neons of New York diners at night. [The Westologist, ‘Edward Hopper – The Loneliest Light’]
In 1953, Hopper wrote a “Statement” for the press – his philosophy as an artist:
“Great art is the outward expression of an inner life in the artist, and this inner life will result in his personal vision of the world. No amount of skillful invention can replace the essential element of imagination. One of the weaknesses of much abstract painting is the attempt to substitute the inventions of the human intellect for a private imaginative conception.
The inner life of a human being is a vast and varied realm and does not concern itself alone with stimulating arrangements of color, form and design.
The term life used in art is something not to be held in contempt, for it implies all of existence and the province of art is to react to it and not to shun it.
Painting will have to deal more fully and less obliquely with life and nature’s phenomena before it can again become great.”
JULY 23, Raymond Moretti
French painter, printmaker, and illustrator – Raymond Moretti – was born #OnThisDay (July 23) in 1931.
Moretti is best known for blending Hebrew letters, lines, and colors to create his dynamic works – in and out of the realm of abstract art. Additionally, he made a living creating lithographs for posters, magazine and book covers, as well as stamps. Notably, Moretti also created the French Judicial Police logo, which combines the head of a man with the head of a tiger.
Raymond Moretti (23 July 1931 – 3 June 2005) was a passionate jazz lover and he had many famous jazz musicians sit for him, including Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Armstrong, and Thelonious Monk. In the 1960s, the artist illustrated covers for a series of 12 highly sought-after jazz LPs called “Moretti Verve”.
JULY 24, Alphonse Mucha
Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period – Alphonse Mucha – was born #OnThisDay (July 24) in 1860.
Mucha is easily recognizable by his distinctly stylized and decorative theatrical posters, particularly those of French stage actress Sarah Bernhardt. He produced a large number of illustrations, advertisements, decorative panels, and designs, which became among the best-known images of the period and continue to fascinate viewers to this day.
In the second part of his artistic life, Mucha returned to his homeland in the Bohemia-Moravia region and devoted himself to painting a series of twenty monumental canvases known as The Slav Epic (1910–1928), impressively depicting the history of all Slavic people of the world.
“The purpose of my work was never to destroy but always to create, to construct bridges, because we must live in the hope that humankind will draw together and that the better we understand each other the easier this will become.” Alphonse Mucha (24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939)
JULY 25, Maxfield Parrish
With a highly successful career that spanned over 50 years, American painter and illustrator – Maxfield Parrish – was born #OnThisDay (July 25) in 1870.
Easily recognizable by his distinctively saturated hues or by the use of androgynous figures in dreamlike fantasy landscapes, Parrish’s idealized neo-classical imagery made him particularly popular. It is said that – e.g. – Parrisch’s 1922 painting “Daybreak” is the most popular art print of the 20th century in the United States, based on the number of prints made: one for every four American homes.
During his creative walk of life, Maxfield Parrish (25 July 1870 – 30 March 1966) produced around 900 pieces of art, including calendars, greeting cards, book illustrations, and magazine covers.
JULY 26, George Grosz
German-American artist – George Grosz – was born #OnThisDay (July 26) in 1893 in Berlin, as Georg Ehrenfried Groß.
Best known for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin life in the 1920s, George Grosz was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivityℹ️ groups during the Weimar Republic.
Grosz served in the army 1914-15 and again briefly in 1917, but spent the rest of the war in Berlin where he made anti-war drawings, along with drawings and paintings attacking the social corruption of Germany. Many of his drawings were published in albums (Gott mit uns, Ecce Homo, Der Spiesser-Spiegel, etc.), and he became subject to prosecutions for insulting the army and blasphemy.
“My drawings expressed my despair, hate and disillusionment, I drew drunkards, puking men, men with clenched fists cursing at the moon… I drew a man, face filled with fright, washing blood from his hands… I drew lonely little men fleeing madly through empty streets… I drew soldiers without noses, war cripples with crustacean-like steel arms, two medical soldiers putting a violent infantryman into a straitjacket made of a horse blanket… I drew a skeleton dressed as a recruit being examined for military duty…”
Grosz immigrated to the United States in 1933, and became a naturalized citizen in 1938. Abandoning the style and subject matter of his earlier work, he exhibited regularly and taught at the Art Students League of New York. In 1946, Grosz published his autobiography – “A Little Yes and a Big No” (Ein kleines Ja und ein großes Nein). He opened a private art school at his home (1950), while also working as Artist in Residence at the Des Moines Art Center. In the latter part of his career, he tried to establish himself as a pure painter of landscapes and still life, but also painted many compositions of an apocalyptic and deeply pessimistic kind.
“The painter once believed in something, but now he paints only a hole without meaning, without anything- nothing but nothingness, the nothingness of our time.”
In 1958-59 Grosz decided to return to Berlin, where he died shortly afterwards, on July 6, 1959.
ℹ️ The New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit) was a movement in German art that arose during the 1920s as a reaction against expressionism and romantic idealism. Although principally describing a tendency in German painting, the term took a life of its own, coming to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany (1918-1933) – in visual arts, literature, music, architecture, and theater.
JULY 27, Hugo Henneberg
Austrian scientist, graphic artist and art photographer of the pictorialism – Hugo Henneberg – was born #OnThisDay (July 27) in 1863.
From 1882 to 1887, Henneberg studied physics, chemistry, astronomy, and mathematics in Vienna. In 1887 he began photographing and in 1893 he exhibited for the first time in Salzburg. Soon after, Henneberg became a member of the leading British art association ‘Linked Ring’.
Together with his fellow photographers Hans Watzek and Heinrich Kühn – jointly known by their signet, ‘Trifolium’ (cloverleaf) – Henneberg developed the three-color rubber print.
As a photographer, Henneberg is best remembered for his landscape photography, characterized by a special depth and a remarkable spatial sense. Furthermore, Hugo Henneberg (27 July 1863 – 11 July 1918) worked extensively with the rubber print process and experimented with combination printing, being also known for pioneering color manipulations.
Featured: Hugo Henneberg’s colored linocut prints
JULY 28, Marcel Duchamp
French painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art – Marcel Duchamp – was born #OnThisDay (July 28) in 1887.
A very complex personality, Marcel Duchamp was one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, with an immense impact on the development of conceptual art. Rejecting “retinal art” (as art intended only to please the eye), Duchamp wanted to use the art to serve the mind and to involve the spectator in the creative act.
“The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with the external world by deciphering and interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to the creative act.” Marcel Duchamp (28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968)
Featured: Marcel Duchamp’s early paintings from 1911-1912 (the nudes*) with central photograph by Eliot Elisofon titled “Marcel Duchamp descends staircase” (published in Life Magazine, 28 April 1952) and the Five-Way Portrait of Marcel Duchamp (Portrait multiple de Marcel Duchamp), Broadway Photo Shop, New York City, 21 June 1917
*Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912; *Nude (Study), Sad Young Man on a Train, 1911-12; *The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes, 1912
JULY 29, Eastman Johnson
American painter and co-founder of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City (the MET) – Eastman Johnson – was born #OnThisDay (July 29) in 1824.
Best known for his genre paintings (paintings of scenes from everyday life), Eastman Johnson was also an immensely talented portrait artist.
JULY 30, Betye Saar
“I’m the kind of person who recycles materials, but I also recycle emotions and feelings.”
African-American artist and powerful visual storyteller – Betye Saar – was born #OnThisDay (July 30) in 1926.
A master of assemblage and installation, collage artist and printmaker, Saar was part of the Black Arts Movement in the 1970s and her work continues to be regarded as highly political, as she challenges racism and related racial stereotypes or misconceptions. In 2018 Betye Irene Saar was granted the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Sculpture Center (ISC), subsequently winning the 2020 Wolfgang Hahn Prize.
JULY 31, Erich Heckel
German painter and printmaker – Erich Heckel – was born #OnThisDay (July 31) in 1883.
A founding member of Dresden-based art group Die Brücke (1905-1913), Heckel aimed to build a “bridge” between traditional neo-romantic German painting and modern expressionist painting.
In December 1911 Heckel moved from Dresden to Berlin and – declared unfit for active service during WWI – he continued his work throughout the war.
In 1937 the Nazi party declared his work “degenerate”, forbade him to show his work in public, and more than 700 items of his art were confiscated from German museums. By 1944 all of his woodcut blocks and print plates had been destroyed.
After World War II Heckel lived at Gaienhofen near Lake Constance, teaching at the Karlsruhe Academy until 1955. He continued painting until his death in Radolfzell am Bodensee on January 27, 1970.
As the world is changing enormously, the pursuit of knowledge and skill becomes acute. Humans engage in lifelong learning for both personal and professional reasons. General knowledge, (continuous) learning, (re-, up-) skilling empower professional & personal development, competitiveness, self-sustainability, social inclusion, active citizenship, satisfaction & wellbeing, and employability.
But learners are different and so should be the means of learning and education. Innovation in learning is key to an inclusive education. Hence, e.g., an art-based approach to learning.